Read e-book online An Outline of Ophthalmology PDF

By Roger L. Coakes and Patrick J. Holmes Sellors (Auth.)

ISBN-10: 072360794X

ISBN-13: 9780723607946

This variation has been revised and up-to-date and is in color and in a brand new structure. The publication nonetheless allows the scholar or working towards surgeon to deal with daily ophthalmic difficulties, in addition to spotting these scientific occasions which require professional awareness. It presents a concise account of recent ophthalmology. simple anatomy and body structure are lined in addition to the ailments of the attention, defined symptom via symptom instead of through the standard systematic strategy. the attention in systemic affliction, ophthalmic investigations and remedy, and customary misconceptions also are mentioned. All illustrations look without delay contrary the appropriate textual content

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43 44 An outline of ophthalmology Many are blind from diseases which are endemic in certain areas. The major causes of blindness in the under­ developed world are: Trachoma Xerophthalmia Onchocerciasis Cataract Chronic glaucoma Leprosy and measles are other important causes (see Chapter 29). Trachoma Trachoma is the most important single cause of preventable blindness. One hundred million people are affected by the disease of whom at least 2 million are blind. It is prevalent throughout much of the developing world and is due in large part to poverty, overcrowding and poor hygiene.

This occurs most commonly in the elderly hypermetrope. An acute attack is precipitated by partial dilatation of the pupil which causes : 1. Increased pressure in the posterior chamber of the Acute glaucoma. An outline of ophthalmology eye, between iris and lens, because aqueous flow through the pupil is restricted. This pushes the peripheral iris forwards against the trabecular meshwork of the drainage angle. 2. Crowding of the already narrow angle by iris. The net result is angle closure and a dramatic rise in intraocular pressure from the normal level of about 15 mmHg to 60 + mmHg.

A superficial lipid layer, derived from the secretions of the Meibomian glands, which retards evaporation of the aqueous tears. Tears flow from the lacrimal gland to the lacrimal puncta mainly along the lower lid margin. The action of the upper lid is essential in applying mucus to the corneal surface and in ensuring an even spread of tears over the cornea. Clinical features Patients with dry eyes complain of chronic discomfort, usually described as a burning, gritty sensation. With minor degrees of tear deficiency signs may be minimal but more severe dryness is accompanied by conjunctival hyperaemia, reduced corneal lustre and the accumulation of stringy mucus.

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An Outline of Ophthalmology by Roger L. Coakes and Patrick J. Holmes Sellors (Auth.)

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