By Jules H. Gilder
The Apple / / sequence of desktops represents probably the most flexible and robust domestic desktops on hand. If you've got used your desktop for some time, you might have most likely turn into really accustomed to Applesoft simple. that is stable, simply because when you recognize that, this booklet will help you graduate from simple programming to meeting language programming. there are numerous purposes to application your Apple in meeting language. at the beginning is pace. meeting language is set a hundred instances swifter than simple. in case you are deliberating writing video games or company courses that do sorting, velocity is of the essence and meeting language is a needs to. meeting language courses often additionally require much less reminiscence. therefore you could squeeze extra complicated courses right into a smaller quantity of reminiscence. ultimately, meeting language courses provide you with a large amount of safety, simply because they're more challenging to track and alter. whereas meeting language is robust, it does not need to be tricky to profit. in reality, in case you can write courses in Applesoft easy, you are already half-way domestic. This publication assumes you recognize uncomplicated and totally not anything approximately meeting language or laptop language. each attempt has been made to jot down in nontechnical language and to set the chapters out in a logical demeanour, introducing new suggestions in digestible items as and once they are wanted, instead of devoting entire chapters to precise items.
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Extra resources for Apple IIc and IIe Assembly Language
If it is cleared (by CLD), as is usual, then normal hexadecimal operation occurs. If set (by SED) all values will be interpreted as Binary Coded Decimal. Bit 2: The Interrupt Flag (II We mentioned interrupts above in the description of the Break flag, and they will be looked at in more detail in Chapter 20. Suffice it to say now, that the flag is set (1=1) when the IRQ interrupt is disabled, and clear (1=0) when IRQ interrupts are permitted. Bit 1: The Zero Flag (Z I As its name implies, the flag is used to show whether or not the result of an operation is zero.
Print the answer. NEGATION The SBC instruction can be used to convert a number into its two's complement form. This is done by subtracting the number to be converted, from zero. The following program asks for a decimal value (less than 255) and prints its two's complement value in hex: Program 12 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 REM •• TWO'S COMPLEMENT CONVERTER •• CODE = 768 FOR LOOP =0 TO 7 READ BYTE POKE CODE + LOOP, BYTE NEXT LOOP REM·· M/C DATA·· DATA 56 DATA 169,0 DATA 229,251 DATA 133,252 DATA 96 140 150 HOME 160 170 180 190 200 210 REM S38 REM SA9, $00 REM SE5, SFB REM S85, SFC REM S60 INPUT "NUMBER TO BE CONVERTED";A IF A > 255 THEN PRINT "ERROR" : GOTO 160 POKE 251, A CALL CODE PRINT "THE TWO'S COMPLEMENT VALUE IS :": PRINT PEEK(252) The meaning of each line is as follows: Lines 20-60 Line 90 Line 100 Line 110 Line 120 Line 130 Lines 150-160 Line 170 Line 180 Line 190 Lines 200-210 48 -SEC -LDA#O -SBC SFB -STA $FC -RTS Assemble machine code.
After it displays the heading you are asked to input an Assembly Address. This is simply the address of the location in memory where you want to start storing your machine language code. This is normally the value you would assign to CODE and it should be entered as a decimal value. On pressing RETURN, the first program address is displayed followed by a dollar sign ($). All you now have to do is type in the hex digits. After you type the second digit, the value of the byte is calculated and then POKEd into memory.
Apple IIc and IIe Assembly Language by Jules H. Gilder